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Conceptual innovators tend to peak early in their careers, before they become immersed in the already accepted theories of the field, Weinberg said.
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These innovators accumulate knowledge through their careers and find groundbreaking ways to analyze, interpret and synthesize that information into new ways of understanding. The researchers took a novel, empirical approach to the study, which involved 31 laureates. They arranged the laureates on a list from the most experimental to most conceptual. For example, conceptual economists tend to use assumptions, proofs and equations and have a mathematical appendix or introduction to their papers. Experimental economists rely on direct inference from facts, so their papers tended to have more references to specific items, such as places, time periods and industries or commodities.
No single gene associated with being gay
After classifying the laureates, the researchers determined the age at which each laureate made his most important contribution to economics and could be considered at his creative peak. They did this through a convention of how academics rate the value and influence of a research paper.
A paper is more influential in the field when other scientists mention — or cite — the paper in their own work. So the more citations a paper accumulates, the more influential it is.
There might be thousands of genes influencing same-sex sexual behavior, each playing a small role, scientists believe. The new study found that all genetic effects likely account for about 32 percent of whether someone will have same-sex sex. Using a big-data technique called genome-wide association, the researchers estimated that common genetic variants — single-letter differences in DNA sequences — account for between 8 percent and 25 percent of same-sex sexual behavior.
The rest of the 32 percent might involve genetic effects they could not measure, they said. Those five comprise less than 1 percent of the genetic influences, they said. And when the scientists tried to use genetic markers to predict how people in unrelated data sets reported their sexual behavior, it turned out to be too little genetic information to allow such prediction.
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While many genetic variants tend to have the same effect in both men and women, Dr. Mills said, two of the five variants the team found were discovered only in males and one was discovered only in females.
One of the male variants might be related to sense of smell, which is involved in sexual attraction, the researchers report. The other male variant is associated with male pattern balding and sits near genes involved in male sex determination. In a finding that could be especially sensitive, the researchers found that whether someone ever engaged in same-sex sexual behavior showed genetic correlations with mental health issues, like major depressive disorder or schizophrenia, and with traits like risk-taking, cannabis use, openness to experience and loneliness.
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They emphasized that the study does not suggest that same-sex sexual behavior causes or is caused by these conditions or characteristics, and that depression or bipolar disorder could be fueled by prejudicial social experiences. Neale said.
Neale said younger study participants were much more likely than older ones to report same-sex sexual experiences, possibly reflecting increased social acceptance. He and others noted that older participants came of age when homosexual behavior was criminalized in Britain and that for much of their life homosexuality was classified as a psychiatric disorder. People steeped in a culture that demonized same-sex intimacy might only have the gumption to reveal it in a study if they were risk-takers to begin with. Later, the researchers compared the genetic underpinnings of whether people ever had same-sex sex with their answers to what proportion of same-sex partners they had.
Neale, who sees those results as a genetic reflection of the variety of sexual orientations within the expanding alphabet of the L. Changes in the climatic condition during that time dispersed this population leading to the spread of humans to other parts of Africa, and eventually across the globe.
'Gay genes': science is on the right track, we're born this way. Let’s deal with it.
Some experts, however, believe that the study needs more validation as the mitochondrial DNA method used in the study is not sufficient to reconstruct the story of human origins. Talking to BBC , Prof Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum, London said that human evolution was a very complicated process and one cannot use modern mitochondrial distributions to trace back our evolution into a single location.
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