American Nudist Culture
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The healthy hobby
Institutional Login. LOG IN. Journal of the History of Sexuality. This has attracted a great deal of academic study. The study found that there was no significant difference between what was reported by men and by women with respect to frequency of nudity in the home. Gordon and Schroeder in reported that parental nudity varies considerably from family to family. They say that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information.
They note that by ages 5 to 6 children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards. Barbara Bonner in cautioned against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic.
In a review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect. The rhetoric of the nudism and anti-nudism movements emphasizes freedom from many of the normal constraints which regulate human interaction in nudist settings, although for different reasons. Using data from French and German beaches, this hypothesis was tested using five different indicators. Little significant variation between nudists and non-nudists within French and German settings is found in their patterns of interactional spacing, while more significant main effects for differences of cultures are found regardless of nudity status.
As a subculture, nudists would appear to differ from nonnudists only in their propensity to like to sunbathe in the nude. Their nude status would appear to have none of the de-inhibiting effects often attributed to nudism. By contrast, clear cultural differences between German and French cultures are shown consistent with Hall's high-low context distinction and the Francoeurs' hot-cool sexuality continuum. At naturist organised events or venues clothing is usually optional, except by swimming pools or sunbathing lawns where complete nudity is expected, weather permitting.
This rule is sometimes a source of controversy among some naturists. Staff at a naturist facility are usually required to be clothed due to health and safety regulations.
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Facilities for naturists are classified in various ways. A landed or members' naturist club is one that owns its own facilities, while non-landed or travel clubs meet at various locations, such as private residences, swimming pools, hot springs, landed clubs and resorts, and rented facilities. Landed clubs can be run by members on democratic lines or by one or more owners who make the rules. In either case, they can determine membership criteria and the obligations of members.
“Nudity is considered quite normal nowadays” - Body and culture: Goethe-Institut
This usually involves sharing work necessary to maintain or develop the site. UK clubs are now required to have child-protection policies in place, and designated child-protection officers. Many clubs promote frequent social activities. The international naturist organizations were mainly composed of representatives of landed clubs. A holiday centre is a facility that specializes in providing apartments, chalets and camping pitches for visiting holidaymakers.
The center is run commercially, and visitors are not members and have no say in the management. Most holiday centers expect visitors to hold an INF card, that is, be a member of their national organization, but some have relaxed this restriction, relying on the carrying of a trade card. Holiday centers can be quite small, just a couple of hectares or large occupying over hectares. Some holiday centres allow regular visitors to purchase their own chalets, and generations of the same families will visit each year.
A naturist resort is, to a European, an essentially urban development where naturism is the norm. Some residents use these resorts as a year-round home. In US usage, a naturist resort can mean a holiday centre. The abbreviation is widely recognised all over Europe and often found on informal signs indicating the direction to a remote naturist beach.
Clothing is optional at nude beaches or "free beaches". A feature of bathing on a nude beach is the anonymity it offers, with membership of a club not being required, nor detailed application processes, nor pre-booking of visits. In some European countries, such as Denmark,  all beaches are clothing optional, while in others like Germany there are naturist sunbathing areas in public parks, e. Naturism encourages a healthy life style, and many naturist clubs at times organize and encourage members to take part in local and international sport events and competitions.
From Woodstock to Edinburgh , and Nambassa in the southern hemisphere communal nudity is commonly recorded at music and counterculture festivals. The series of s Nambassa hippie festivals held in New Zealand is a further example of non sexualized naturism. Nudity in social contexts has been practised in various forms by many cultures at all time periods. It is difficult to nominate exactly when naturism started as a movement.
The earliest known naturist club in the "western" sense of the word was established in British India in The commune was based in Matheran and had just three members at the beginning; Crawford and two sons of an Anglican missionary, Andrew and Kellogg Calderwood. In , a series of philosophical papers was published in Germany by Dr. Heinrich Pudor , under the pseudonym Heinrich Scham, who coined the term Nacktkultur. In he went on to write a three volume treatise with his new term as its title, which discussed the benefits of nudity in co-education and advocated participating in sports while being free of cumbersome clothing.
Germany published the first journal of nudism between and The wide publication of those papers and others, contributed to an explosive worldwide growth of nudism, in which nudists participated in various social, recreational, and physical fitness activities in the nude. The first organized club for nudists on a large scale, Freilichtpark Free-Light Park , was opened near Hamburg in by Paul Zimmerman. More recently, naturist holiday options have expanded to include cruises.
Naturism had many different philosophical sources and means many things to different people. In , the INF defined naturism as:. At one end of the spectrum are the nudists who just enjoy a nude life style, and at the other are the naturists, who have deeply held beliefs and see communal nudity as just one of many important principles.
The naturist philosophy has several sources, many of which can be traced back to early 20th century health and fitness philosophies in Germany and England , although the concepts of returning to nature and creating equality have much deeper roots. Individuals have formed naturist groups for a variety of specific purposes. Reasons that have at times been given:.
Never before did I get so close to Nature; never before did she come so close to me Nature was naked, and I was also Sweet, sane, still Nakedness in Nature! Is not nakedness indecent? No, not inherently. It is your thought, your sophistication, your fear, your respectability, that is indecent. There come moods when these clothes of ours are not only too irksome to wear, but are themselves indecent. Henry David Thoreau , In wildness is the preservation of the world. We cannot adequately appreciate this aspect of nature if we approach it with any taint of human pretense.
It will elude us if we allow artifacts like clothing to intervene between ourselves and this Other.
To apprehend it, we cannot be naked enough. This movement was based on the French concept of joie de vivre , the idea of revelling freely in physical sensations and direct experiences and a spontaneous approach to life. Sunlight has been shown to be beneficial in some skin conditions and enables the body to make vitamin D ,  but with the increased awareness of skin cancer , wearing of sunscreen is now part of the culture. In Finnish culture, nudism is considered to be a relatively normal way to live.
It is not uncommon to see entire families spending time together naked. Families may be naked while bathing in a sauna, swimming in a pool, or playing on a beach, and it's not unusual to see children playing naked in a kindergarten or family yard for example.
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Nudity as a whole is considered less taboo than many other countries. In la Revue des deux mondes published a report on German naturism and S. Gay created a naturist community at Bois-Fourgon. His family had suffered from tuberculosis, and he saw naturism as a cure and a continuation of the traditions of the ancient Greeks.
The court action that he initiated, established that nudism was legal on private property that was fenced and screened. The village was open to the public. In , the naturist movement was officially recognised. Albert and Christine Lecocq were active members of many of these clubs, but after disagreements left and In Albert and Christine Lecocq founded the Club du Soleil with members in 84 cities. The Quartier Naturiste at Agde offers a different form of social nudity.
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia;
- American Nudist Culture / leupenvifami.ml.
- A Cultural History of American Nudism?
- Naturism - Wikiwand.
Naturism employs more than people, and is estimated to be worth million Euro to the French economy. German naturism was part of the Lebensreform movement and the Wandervogel youth movement of , from Steglitz , Berlin which promoted ideas of fitness and vigour. At the same time doctors of the Natural Healing Movement were using heliotherapy , treating diseases such as TB , rheumatism and scrofula with exposure to sunlight.
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Nacktkultur, a term coined in by Heinrich Pudor , flourished. It was practised in a network of members clubs. The movement gained prominence in the s as offering a health giving life-style with Utopian ideals. Germany published the first naturist journal between and It became associated with pacificism. In , Adolf Koch established a school of naturism in Berlin; encouraging a mixing of the sexes, open air exercises, and a programme of "sexual hygiene".
In , the Berlin school hosted the first International Congress on Nudity. Also, they had to keep all activities hidden in the countryside where there was little chance of being seen by others. The status as a West German sports federation member gave the clubs rights and privileges e. After the war, East Germans were free to practice naturism, chiefly at beaches rather than clubs private organizations being regarded as potentially subversive.