Algae Biofuels 101: Chapter 6-Building a Backyard Raceway Pond

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Lundquist, A. Algae for Conversion of Manure Nutrients to Animal Feed: Evaluation of advanced nutritional value, toxicity, and zoonotic pathogens. Washington DC. McHugh, A. Sancio, S. Detection of cyanobacteria and their toxins for safe algae-based feed production. Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts. Paradise Point, San Diego. Shires, S.

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Atmadja, G. Schwartz, S. Algae for conversion of manure nutrients to animal feed: Development of an algae production model. Ibekwe, S. Cyanobacterial and Microalgae Community Structures in Algae. Cultivation Reactors for Biofuel Production. Wu, Y. Patel, S. Eulogio, I.

CCRES ALGAE

Janilkarn-Urena, M. Murry-Ewers, S. Sancio, N. Euloglio, S. Murry, M. Garden Grove, CA. Sancio, J. McHugh, S. Ahmadzadeh, M. Algae Research submitted. Ahmadzadeh, MA Murry. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris in high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for wastewater treatment. Current Biotechnology. Ahmadzadeh, S. Lyon, M Murry. Nitrate and nitrite removal from wastewater using algae. Abrishamchi P. Moheimani N. Bioprocess engineering of microalgae to optimize lipid production through nutrient management.

Journal of Applied Phycology. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. November 18, Murry, Lesly M. Palacios Castillo, Kristen M. December 1, Mark Ibekwe. October , Washington, DC.

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We were not able to collect samples in Winter and Spring since our newly established ponds had not attained steady-state growth conditions that allowed drawing out of algal biomass from ponds. We sampled the ponds in Summer and Fall and also collected biomass compositional analysis with NGS, dominant species and nutritional composition plus modeling in photobioreactors mimicking pond conditions.

We have also had problems associated with uncontrollable changes in the weather at the CPSLO pond bioreactors which include, very heavy rains, persistent droughts and cracking of our open raceway, paddle-wheeled ponds, and subsequent repairs that affected steady progress in sample collection from the ponds. Bacteria and fungi that can grow faster than algae can to can overwhelm growth and isolation of target algae strains in pure cultures.

In recent months CPP we have had serious fungal contamination issues with our algal cultures and this halted our DNA sequencing efforts where pure single-culture DNA is mandated.

Associated Data

Several fungicidal and fungi-static agents were screened for efficacy. Other setbacks pertain to method development, for example the difficulties in acquiring relevant or appropriate quality control cyanobacterial algae strains for routine use in calibration of genotype or toxin tests. We are therefore characterizing strains that have been "suspected" to produce toxins to see if they produce the toxins of interest for use in study i.


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Due to the inherent slow growth and contamination of fungal stocks, it can take 8 weeks or more to obtain quality control algae strains from commercial suppliers e. And after they are finally shipped to our labs they take just as long to grow and use in subsequent tests. While we successfully developed end-point PCR protocols to reliably detect cyanobacteria, we have not been able to identify quality control strains for the other toxins nodularin, and cylindrospermopsin. We have additionally encountered problems confirming toxin production using ELISA technics by the strains that are positive for the microcystin and anatoxin-a toxin-encoding pathways and are working on optimizing these technics and complementing them with cell toxicity assays that we initiated in Spring The no cost extension plan adheres to previously approved objectives of the project and will enable model testing with well-characterized algae monocultures.

No new goals or objectives were proposed. New tools were used and new technics learned in our 4 labs by both undergraduate and graduate research assistants and research scientists PD And Co-PDs. Students learned and acquired research experiences and earned internship or research units that contributed to graduation, including acquisation of life-long skills that enhanced their resumes regards graduate school admission or employability. One student research assistant graduated in spring and got a job with Cedars Sinai Medical Center, CA, with a prestigious biotechnology company.

Her experiences as an intern and research assistant on the algae project enabled this opportunity. All students working on the algal project attained greater proficiency in ability to conduct research by interacting with their mentors PDs and co-PDs and attending workshops and conferences. The students also developed advanced professional skills in use of cutting edge instrumentation, data collection, storage, analysis and interpretation, as well as data dissemination via poster and oral presentations. Several students had never prepared a poster or presented at a professional conference, thus they were mentored to develop and refine these fundamental skills.

Students also attended various conferences [local and international; e. Pond samples collected from all seasons since were cryopreserved and are awaiting further analysis or more in-depth testing: i. This enabled us to isolate and characterize strains that are seasonally dominant, as well as characterize their growth and nutritional profiles.

In the final phase of our study, which started in Fall , we will inoculate the ponds with known species of well-characterized seasonally dominant strains originally isolated from the CPSLO ponds that were characterized for growth and nutritional profiles, and monitor for maximum biomass production of safe algal feeds. Impacts What was accomplished under these goals? We monitored seasonal nutrient N and P uptake rates, identified seasonally dominant algal species, initiated bioflocculation selection, and established routine laboratory protocols SOPs.

Dairy lagoon effluent DLE nutrient characteristics were quantified. Data collected to help develop a productivity model based on multiple variables includes: hydraulic residence time HRT , solar radiation, water temperature, available nutrient concentration, and primary nutrient source.

A pH control system was installed to introduce carbon dioxide as needed, ensuring carbon limitation, which might retard biomass production, does not occur. Experimental Overview: Nutrient additions as well as a fraction of nutrients from DLE were adjusted to meet growth needs of algae enabling development of a productivity model based on multiple variables indicated above. Nutrient concentrations total N, total inorganic N, nitrate, total P in the DLE were changing throughout the trial, as a function of dairy operation and weather.

Apparatus and Operations: Progress was made in developing a bioflocculating algal community in the bioreactors. Flocc clump settling times, volatile suspended solids VSS concentration and percent of the VSS that settled over time were monitored. Harvesting of algal biomass was achieved via gravity settling.

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Media: Algae ponds were fed dairy flush water from DLE. A water quality analysis laboratory set up in was used and enabled routine analysis of N and P, solids, chemical oxygen demand COD and alkalinity, to accurately analyze DLE. The deep brown color of the DLE was diluted to promote a green water or algae-based treatment system as opposed to a brown water bacteria-based treatment system. Model Development: Seasonal data were verified or enhanced with more data, to continue to compile data for the development of a predictive model for nutrient uptake and biomass production potential.

We have been collecting various data sets, including: solar radiation, temperature, residence time, nutrient and biomass concentration data, which will be used to build and calibrate the model. Experiments, Variables, Sampling and Analysis: Water quality data were collected and sorted by season to examine pond operational variables. All students working on the algal project attained greater proficiency in ability to conduct research by interacting with their mentors PDs and co-PDs and attending workshops and conferences. The students also developed advanced professional skills in use of cutting edge instrumentation, data collection, storage, analysis and interpretation, as well as data dissemination via poster and oral presentations.

Several students had never prepared a poster or presented at a professional conference, thus they were mentored to develop and refine these fundamental skills. Students also attended various conferences [local and international; e. Pond samples collected from all seasons since were cryopreserved and are awaiting further analysis or more in-depth testing: i.

This enabled us to isolate and characterize strains that are seasonally dominant, as well as characterize their growth and nutritional profiles.